|This algorithm (ICC) is reviewed in  and described in more detail in  where it is applied to a small AGM VRLA battery.
claimed (without any explanation) to be designed to leave the battery
fully charged with minimal thermal stress
and overcharge, thus resulting in much longer battery life. It can also
assist in equalization in component cells in a battery string. Some experimental results are provided to support this claim. It is
noted paradoxically in  that the battery tends to be left slightly
undercharged. Note the long charge times and inefficient use of the charger as reported in .
Thus it is best applied to off-line chargers. The authors present
experimental results showing the pulse charging time to be about
twice that of the bulk charging time, with an overall charging time of
over three hours from a depth of discharge of 15%. This is not seen as
a disadvantage for the application under consideration (standby
- The bulk phase charging operates as above, although the
authors of  use a charge rate of C/10 which is quite low. This
delivers over 95% of the charge to the battery.
- The battery stands idle until the terminal voltage reaches a low limit equivalent to 97% of the capacity.
pulsed charging mode is used at C/20 with current on for
10 seconds and off for 20 seconds to allow the battery to cool. The
charge time is too short for the battery terminal voltage to reach the
gassing voltage until a number of cycles have been completed.
- Pulsed charging continues until the terminal voltage again reaches the gassing limit.
duty cycle of the ICC algorithm needs to be adapted as ambient
temperature rises. The voltage limits are also adapted according to the
manufacturers' datasheets, however the duty cycle adaptation requires
understanding of the thermal processes in the charging battery. As the
battery ages the oxygen recombination reaction tends to dominate the
activity at the negative plate and will require further adaptation of
generation and recombination will become significant when the battery reaches its
gassing voltage. The ICC method of charging removes the charger at that
point and drops the battery to a lower charging current. Once the battery is fully
charged all the current will go into oxygen generation and
recombination and this claimed to occur only at the very end in the cycle of pulsed
- "Charge regimes for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries: Performance overview inclusive of temperature compensation." Y.S. Wong, W.G. Hurley, W.H. Wölfle. Journal of Power Sources 183 (2008) 783–791.
- "A New Approach to Intermittent Charging of Valve-Regulated
Lead–Acid Batteries in Standby Applications", M. Bhatt, W.G. Hurley,
W.H. Wölfle, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 52 (2005) 1337–1342.
- “Mathematical modeling of current-interrupt and pulse operation of valve-regulated lead acid cells,” V. Srinivasan, G. Q. Wang, and C. Y. Wang, J. Electrochem. Soc. 150, A316–A325, 2003.